Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is a mental health illness that involves emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression) (depression).You may feel gloomy or hopeless when you are depressed, and you may lose interest or pleasure in most activities. You may feel ecstatic, full of energy, or abnormally irritable when your mood switches to mania or hypomania (a milder form of mania). Sleep, energy, activity, judgment, conduct, and the ability to think clearly can all be affected by mood fluctuations.
In 1980, the term “manic depression” was replaced by “bipolar disorder.” It was done in an attempt to remove the stigma connected with the condition by include symptoms like hypomania while excluding others.
What Is Bipolar Disorder?
Bipolar disorder is a category of mood disorders characterized by cyclical mood, cognitive, and behavior problems. Manic episodes are characterized by alternating periods of high, expansive, or irritated moods. Depressive episodes are defined as periods of feeling worthless, a loss of concentration, and exhaustion. The severity of the problems varies between these two phase
symptoms of manic depression
Bipolar and associated disorders come in a variety of forms and symptoms. Mania, hypomania, and depression are examples. Symptoms might include erratic mood and behavior, causing severe anguish and problems in daily life.
Bipolar I is a kind of bipolar disorder. At least one manic episode has occurred, maybe preceded or followed by hypomanic or significant depressive episodes. Mania can sometimes lead to a disconnection from reality (psychosis).
Bipolar II is a kind of bipolar disorder. You’ve experienced at least one severe depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder is a type of cyclothymia. You’ve had frequent times of hypomania symptoms and periods of depressive symptoms for at least two years — or one year in children and teenagers (though less severe than major depression).
Other kinds. Bipolar and associated illnesses, for example, might be caused by particular drugs or alcohol, or by a medical condition such as Cushing’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, or stroke.
Bipolar II disorder is a distinct diagnosis, not a milder version of bipolar I disease. Individuals with bipolar II disorder can be depressed for longer periods of time, which can cause significant impairment. Manic episodes in bipolar I disorder can be severe and dangerous.
Mania and hypomania
Mania is more severe than hypomania, and it results in more obvious problems at work, school, and social activities, as well as relationship problems. Mania can also lead to a disconnection from reality (psychosis), which necessitates hospitalization.
Three or more of these signs are present in both a manic and hypomanic episode:
- Abnormally upbeat, jumpy or wired
- Increased activity, energy or agitation
- Exaggerated sense of well-being and self-confidence (euphoria)
- Decreased need for sleep
- Unusual talkativeness
- Racing thoughts
- Poor decision-making — for example, going on buying sprees, taking sexual risks or making foolish investments
Major depressive episode
Major depression, on the other hand, is a symptom of bipolar disorder that occurs at the other extreme of the spectrum. It can also affect persons who haven’t been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The following are some of the signs and symptoms of serious depression:
- Loss of energy
- Severe withdrawal from normal activities
- Weight loss or gain
- Uncontrollable crying
- Hallucinations and/or delusions
- Thoughts of, or attempts at, suicide
- Decreased ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness
Causes of manic depression
Although the specific origin of bipolar disorder is unknown, various variables could be at play, including:
Differences in biology. Bipolar disorder patients’ brains appear to be changing physically. The importance of these changes is still unknown, although they may eventually aid in the identification of causes.
Genetics. People with bipolar disorder are more likely to have a first-degree family with the illness, such as a sibling or parent. Researchers are looking for genes that may play a role in the development of bipolar disorder.
Risk factors of manic disorder
The following factors may raise your chance of developing bipolar illness or act as a trigger for your first episode:
- Having a first-degree family with bipolar disorder, such as a parent or sibling.
- Periods of severe stress, such as when a loved one dies or when another catastrophic event occurs.
- Abuse of drugs or alcohol